Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.Palatal Expansion Technique: An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Orthodontic Retainers: Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dugong: A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Sirenia: An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Papio cynocephalus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern equatorial and east Africa. They are smaller than PAPIO ANUBIS and have a thinner mane.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesFinches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.AfricaXenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Mycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Malignant Catarrh: A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.ArtiodactylaTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Allophanate Hydrolase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of allophanic acid to two molecules of ammonia plus two molecules of "active carbon dioxide". EC 3.5.1.54.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Aphorisms and ProverbsBible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Aphorisms and Proverbs as Topic: Short popular sayings effectively expressing or astutely professing general truths or useful thoughts. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p97, p1556)Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Polygonum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is an ingredient of Shou-Wu-Pian, a Chinese herbal preparation (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). The common name of black bindweed also refers to TAMUS or Fallopia (use POLYGONACEAE).Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.IsraelHeart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Holy Roman Empire: Realm in central Europe consisting of a confederation of German and Italian territories under the suzerainty of an emperor and existing from the 9th or 10th century to 1806.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Refusal to Participate: Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.