Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Ustilago: A genus of basidiomycetous smut fungi comprising the loose smuts.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Phialophora: A mitosporic fungal genus. Phialophora verrucosa is a cause of chromomycosis (CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS). Ophiobolus is the teleomorph of Phialophora.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Mucormycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Absidia: A genus of zygomycetous fungi, family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, which sometimes causes infection in humans.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Trichophyton: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.Fungal Structures: The parts of fungi.Zygomycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by fungi in the class Zygomycetes. It includes MUCORMYCOSIS and entomophthoramycosis. The latter is a tropical infection of subcutaneous tissue or paranasal sinuses caused by fungi in the order Entomophthorales. Phycomycosis, closely related to zygomycosis, describes infection with members of Phycomycetes, an obsolete classification.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Streptomyces lividans: An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Microsporum: A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Tinea: Fungal infection of keratinized tissues such as hair, skin and nails. The main causative fungi include MICROSPORUM; TRICHOPHYTON; and EPIDERMOPHYTON.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.