Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Polygeline: A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Shock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Blood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Deslanoside: Deacetyllanatoside C. A cardiotonic glycoside from the leaves of Digitalis lanata.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Burn Units: Specialized hospital facilities which provide intensive care for burn patients.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.