Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.KetonesIminesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Allyl CompoundsChemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)QuinaldinesChemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Chemical EngineeringCyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)AcetylenePatents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Chemistry, Inorganic: A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).HandbooksOrganic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).BooksUrogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)