Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.
A geographical area of the United States comprising the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.