Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Nuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Bombs: A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.Capital Punishment: The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.Genocide: The deliberate annihilation of a national, ethnic, or religious group, in part or in whole.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.GuatemalaEthics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Licensure, Nursing: The granting of a license to practice the profession of nursing.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Assisted Circulation: Pumping that aids the natural activity of the heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.EncyclopediasBeriberi: A disease caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) and characterized by polyneuritis, cardiac pathology, and edema. The epidemic form is found primarily in areas in which white (polished) rice is the staple food, as in Japan, China, the Philippines, India, and other countries of southeast Asia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vesicovaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.BooksInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Book SelectionClick Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Helsinki Declaration: An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.PrisonersKorean War: An armed conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in Korea from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. The parties included United Nations forces from 15 member nations under United States command against military from North Korea and the Peoples Republic of China.Rationalization: A defense mechanism operating unconsciously, in which the individual attempts to justify or make consciously tolerable, by plausible means, feelings, behavior, and motives that would otherwise be intolerable.Democratic People's Republic of Korea: A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.