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Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Maternal-Child Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Parental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Rooming-in Care: Care of the newborn infant in a crib near the mother's bed, instead of in a nursery, during the hospital stay.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Nurse Midwives: Professional nurses who have received postgraduate training in midwifery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Birthing Centers: Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.EnglandHospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overLabor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).United StatesHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.BrazilLiability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.ScotlandMedical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Great BritainBirth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hospital-Patient Relations: Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)SyriaDefensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.Puerperal Infection: An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.Hospitals, Group Practice: Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.Doulas: Trained lay women who provide emotional and/or physical support during obstetric labor and the postpartum period for mothers and their partners.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Hospital Shared Services: Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Labor Stage, Third: The final period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the expulsion of the FETUS to the expulsion of the PLACENTA.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Clinical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel to improve the quality of patient care and outcomes. The clinical audit was formally introduced in 1993 into the United Kingdom's National Health Service.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Nurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Hospitals, AnimalGuideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.LondonPostpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.WalesIntensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Facility Planning: Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)IrelandHealth Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Housekeeping, Hospital: Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.NepalOncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.IndiaWorkload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Episiotomy: An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Northern IrelandRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)