FinlandHospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.IndiaHospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.EnglandHospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Airports: Terminal facilities used for aircraft takeoff and landing and including facilities for handling passengers. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Hospitals, Rural: Hospitals located in a rural area.Chief Executive Officers, Hospital: Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).Hospital Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Chief Cells, Gastric: Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Bed Conversion: The reallocation of beds from one type of care service to another, as in converting acute care beds to long term care beds.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)WashingtonPublic Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Hemodialysis Units, Hospital: Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.