Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Laser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.PhiladelphiaNontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Paracentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.LondonFour-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)NewsConsensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Central Supply, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for receiving, storing, and distributing medical and surgical supplies and equipment.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)