Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Aesculus: A plant genus of the family HIPPOCASTANACEAE (or SAPINDACEAE by some) that contains antimicrobial protein 1 and escin. A. hippocastanum is used in folk medicine for treating chronic venous insufficiency.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Herpesvirus 1, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Rhodococcus equi: A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Rickettsiaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Sarcocystis: A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Sarcocystosis: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Strongyle Infections, Equine: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Saskatchewan: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Hospitals, AnimalPrince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Actinomycetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Arterivirus Infections: Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Housing, AnimalAlcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Astragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Herpesvirus 4, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS and the chief cause of rhinopneumonitis in horses.Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Arteritis Virus, Equine: The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.IcelandHendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Yucca: A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fenbendazole: Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Adonis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cardenolide oligoglycosides such as adoniside, adonisidum and alepposide.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Glycogen Storage Disease: A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Henipavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Strongylus: A genus of intestinal parasitic nematodes occurring in animals and man.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Taylorella equigenitalis: A species of bacteria which is comprised of gram-negative rods which often approach a spherical shape. They are nonmotile and microaerophilic. They are considered parasites of horses and are pathogenic for mares. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Campylobacter lari: A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Kidney Papillary Necrosis: A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.Imidocarb: One of ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS used especially against BABESIA in livestock. Toxicity has been reported.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Joint DiseasesApc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Onchocerca: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.Sarcocystidae: A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.Asthenia: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.Borna Disease: An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Metatarsus: The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Encephalomalacia: Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Oxidative Coupling: The reaction of two molecular entities via oxidation usually catalyzed by a transition metal compound and involving dioxygen as the oxidant.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Clonixin: Anti-inflammatory analgesic.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mycotoxicosis: Poisoning caused by the ingestion of mycotoxins (toxins of fungal origin).Eragrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Equine-Assisted Therapy: Therapy assisted by the use of a horse and/or its movement, including equine-assisted psychotherapy, horseback riding, and hippotherapy.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Actinobacillus equuli: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which is pathogenic for HORSES and PIGS.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Aeromonas caviae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that is found in domestic and wild animals including birds, and fish. In humans it causes GASTROENTERITIS in young children and some adults.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Tripelennamine: A histamine H1 antagonist with low sedative action but frequent gastrointestinal irritation. It is used to treat ASTHMA; HAY FEVER; URTICARIA; and RHINITIS; and also in veterinary applications. Tripelennamine is administered by various routes, including topically.