The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Material prepared from plants.
System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
A genus of basiodiomycetous fungi in the family Coriolaceae. Members are known for infesting wood.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.
In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE that has been used in ABSINTHE. The oil contains neurotoxic 1-thujone and d-isothujone.
The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.
The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).
A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
A plant genus of the family BALANOPHORACEAE. Members contain stigmastanes and ursanes (TRITERPENES) and lignan glucopyranosides (LIGNANS).
Hypoxis is a plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypoxidaceae).
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.
A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (HELIOTROPIUM).
Dammarane type triterpene saponins based mainly on the aglycones, protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE that is a source of triterpenoids and diterpene epoxides such as triptolide.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE. Members contain chrysophanic acid, rhein, EMODIN, and other ANTHRAQUINONES. The roots were formerly used as PURGATIVES.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
A genus of basidiomyceteous fungi in the family POLYPORACEAE found mostly on living trees or dead wood.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.
A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.
An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
A plant species of the genus SCUTELLARIA, family LAMIACEAE, that contains skullcapflavone and is used in CHINESE HERBAL DRUGS.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
A plant genus of the family BERBERIDACEAE which is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL. Members contain flavonol glycosides including epimedins, icariin and noricariin.
A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Bahupatra (MEDICINE, AYURVEDIC) is prepared from this.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
The burning of a small, thimble sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves on the SKIN at an ACUPUNCTURE point. Usually the plugs contain leaves of MUGWORT or moxa.
A plant genus of the family SMILACACEAE. Members contain smiglasides (phenylpropanoid glycosides) and steroidal saponins. Commercially it is sometimes adulterated with HEMIDESMUS, which would affect experimental results.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A plant genus of the family SCHISANDRACEAE. Members contain schisandrins (Russian) which are also called gomisins (Japanese) or wuweizins (Chinese). The compounds in this genus are very similar to those in the related KADSURA and medicinal usage is very similar. It is sometimes adulterated with KADSURA.
A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.
In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, a lack of vital energy (called yangxu in Chinese). It manifests itself in various systemic and organic diseases. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979)
A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. As a houseplant it sometimes poisons children and animals.
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Some members of Zanthoxylum are reclassified from ELEUTHEROCOCCUS, Melicope, and EVODIA. The twigs are used as dental brushing sticks (TOOTHBRUSHING). Most plants that are called Fagara have been reclassified as Zanthoxylum, however some Fagara were reclassified to MELICOPE (also in the Rutacea family) or to GLEDITSIA (a genus in the FABACEAE family).
The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES. Heal all is another common name.
A plant genus of the family Apiaceae.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain TROPANES. The common name of trumpet flower is also sometimes used for GELSEMIUM.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain aculeatin D, beta-sitosterol, and STIGMASTEROL. Some members have been reclassified to ELETTARIA and other ZINGIBERACEAE.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is the source of tung oil and a phorbol diester (PHORBOL ESTERS).
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE used in folk medicine as a nervine.
Compounds with two triple bonds. Some of them are CYTOTOXINS.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Oil from the seed (SAFFLOWER OIL) is an important food oil of commerce.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.
Phenolic benzoic acid esters.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.