2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Medicine in ArtTelevision: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Holography: The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.Magnets: Objects that produce a magnetic field.Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques: The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.MuseumsWar: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.