A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A family of mainly aromatic evergreen plants in the order Laurales. The laurel family includes 2,200 species in 45 genera and from these are derived medicinal extracts, essential oils, camphor and other products.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting birds but rarely causing clinical problems. Transmission is predominantly vertical. HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK is the type species.
Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A thiourea antithyroid agent that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormone. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.