Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The status of health in urban populations.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The status of health in rural populations.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
All organized methods of funding.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Male parents, human or animal.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Material prepared from plants.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.