Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Headache Disorders: Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Tension-Type Headache: A common primary headache disorder, characterized by a dull, non-pulsatile, diffuse, band-like (or vice-like) PAIN of mild to moderate intensity in the HEAD; SCALP; or NECK. The subtypes are classified by frequency and severity of symptoms. There is no clear cause even though it has been associated with MUSCLE CONTRACTION and stress. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Cluster Headache: A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Vascular Headaches: Secondary headache disorders attributed to a variety of cranial or cervical vascular disorders, such as BRAIN ISCHEMIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Headache Disorders, Secondary: Conditions with HEADACHE symptom that can be attributed to a variety of causes including BRAIN VASCULAR DISORDERS; WOUNDS AND INJURIES; INFECTION; drug use or its withdrawal.Migraine without Aura: Recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches, not preceded or accompanied by an aura, in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. It is characterized by PAIN of moderate to severe intensity; aggravated by physical activity; and associated with NAUSEA and / or PHOTOPHOBIA and PHONOPHOBIA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Migraine with Aura: A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Blood Patch, Epidural: The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias: Primary headache disorders that show symptoms caused by the activation of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. These autonomic features include redness and tearing of the EYE, nasal congestion or discharge, facial SWEATING and other symptoms. Most subgroups show unilateral cranial PAIN.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Sumatriptan: A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Relaxation Therapy: Treatment to improve one's health condition by using techniques that can reduce PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS; or both.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.SingaporeAlcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: A syndrome of ORTHOSTATIC INTOLERANCE combined with excessive upright TACHYCARDIA, and usually without associated ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. All variants have in common an excessively reduced venous return to the heart (central HYPOVOLEMIA) while upright.Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Headache Disorders, Primary: Conditions in which the primary symptom is HEADACHE and the headache cannot be attributed to any known causes.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Orthostatic Intolerance: Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion or autonomic overaction which develop while the subject is standing, but are relieved on recumbency. Types of this include NEUROCARDIOGENIC SYNCOPE; POSTURAL ORTHOSTATIC TACHYCARDIA SYNDROME; and neurogenic ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. (From Noseworthy, JH., Neurological Therapeutics Principles and Practice, 2007, p2575-2576)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Rhodiola: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.