Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Specialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.United StatesEthics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Chief Executive Officers, Hospital: Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethical Review: A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.Ethics, Institutional: The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.ScotlandEducation, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Hospital Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Osteopathic Physicians: Licensed physicians trained in OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE. An osteopathic physician, also known as D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), is able to perform surgery and prescribe medications.Health Facility Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Physician Impairment: The physician's inability to practice medicine with reasonable skill and safety to the patient due to the physician's disability. Common causes include alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, physical disability, and senility.Operating Room Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of operating room services and facilities.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Consent Forms: Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Moving and Lifting Patients: Moving or repositioning patients within their beds, from bed to bed, bed to chair, or otherwise from one posture or surface to another.Employee Performance Appraisal: The assessment of the functioning of an employee in relation to work.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Ethics Committees: Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Licensure, Pharmacy: The granting of a license to practice pharmacy.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Accidents, AviationGuidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Test Taking Skills: Skills and strategies, unrelated to the traits a test is intended to measure, that may increase test takers' scores -- may include the effects of coaching or experience in taking tests. (ERIC Thesaurus)Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Northern IrelandGenetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Professional Staff Committees: Committees of professional personnel who have responsibility for determining policies, procedures, and controls related to professional matters in health facilities.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.OhioCommittee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Institute of Medicine (U.S.): Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.