Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 18.104.22.168 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 22.214.171.124 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 126.96.36.199 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 188.8.131.52 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTIGALES. They contain polyflagellate zoospores and grow on a range of simple and complex carbohydrates in the rumen of sheep and cattle.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Amino Acid Sequence
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
Protein Structure, Secondary
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins. Remifemin from C. racemosa is used to suppress LUTEINIZING HORMONE. It is reclassified by some to ACTAEA. The common name of black snakeroot is also used with ASARUM and SANICULA.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 184.108.40.206.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 220.127.116.11.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)
Receptor, IGF Type 2
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 18.104.22.168.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Drugs, Chinese Herbal
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTICALES, containing uniflagellate zoospores.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups)
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides and cytotoxic phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide alkaloids.