Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.
A large genus of gilled mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They are most often found in mountain and northern forests.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.
A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.