Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Genetics, Medical: A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fetoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.MichiganDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Wharton Jelly: Jelly-like connective tissue of the UMBILICAL CORD that contains MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Animals, ZooUmbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Anal Sacs: A pair of anal glands or sacs, located on either side of the ANUS, that produce and store a dark, foul-smelling fluid in carnivorous animals such as MEPHITIDAE and DOGS. The expelled fluid is used as a defensive repellent (in skunks) or a material to mark territory (in dogs).Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Spouses: Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Retinoblastoma: A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)HandbooksRetinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4: A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 7: A retinoblastoma-binding protein that has an affinity for core HISTONES. It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2.Retinoblastoma Binding Proteins: A family of endogenous regulatory proteins that associate with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN via a specific high-affinity binding domain. Members of this family of proteins are often found associated with histone-modifying enzymes and protein complexes that regulate gene expression.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.