Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Bethanechol compounds are parasympathomimetic agents that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors, primarily used to treat urinary retention and nonobstructive bladder dysfunction by increasing bladder contractility and decreasing post-void residual volume.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Vagal denervation of that part of the STOMACH lined with acid-secreting mucosa (GASTRIC MUCOSA) containing the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Since the procedure leaves the vagal branches to the antrum and PYLORUS intact, it circumvents gastric drainage required with truncal vagotomy techniques.
A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Benzoxepins are heterocyclic compounds that consist of a benzene fused to a oxepine ring, which have been used as building blocks in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical drugs, particularly in the development of psychoactive medications for treating anxiety and depression disorders.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Endocrine cells which secrete GASTRIN, a peptide that induces GASTRIC ACID secretion. They are found predominantly in the GASTRIC GLANDS of PYLORIC ANTRUM in the STOMACH, but can also be found in the DUODENUM, nervous and other tissues.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC
Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
Benzodiazepinones are a class of psychoactive drugs that bind to the GABA-A receptor and enhance its inhibitory effects, producing anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It may play a role as a neuromodulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission the regulation of GASTRIC ACID secretion from GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
4-Methoxy-2-(5-methoxy-3-methylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine. A pyrimidinyl pyrazole with antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity.
A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.
Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on gastric secretion and reduces gastrointestinal motility. It is used clinically in the drug therapy of gastrointestinal ulcers.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
A dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of GLICENTIN. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions, delay gastric emptying, and reduced food intake.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
The consumption of edible substances.
Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.
One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
An antagonist of histamine that appears to block both H2 and H3 histamine receptors. It has been used in the treatment of ulcers.
A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.