Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Hockey: A game in which two parties of players provided with curved or hooked sticks seek to drive a ball or puck through opposite goals. This applies to either ice hockey or field hockey.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Electrical Equipment and Supplies: Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Practice Valuation and Purchase: Determination of economic value of an established health care provider practice including value of patient lists, equipment, and other assets, and process of buying or selling rights to said practice.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: Treatment technique in a virtual environment which allows the participant to experience a sense of presence in an immersive, computer-generated, three-dimensional, interactive environment that minimizes avoidance behavior and facilitates emotional involvement. (from Curr Psychiatry Rep (2010) 12:298)ComputersTrust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Kinesiology, Applied: The study of muscles and the movement of the human body. In holistic medicine it is the balance of movement and the interaction of a person's energy systems. Applied kinesiology is the name given by its inventor, Dr. George Goodheart, to the system of applying muscle testing diagnostically and therapeutically to different aspects of health care. (Thorsons Introductory Guide to Kinesiology, 1992, p13)Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Precipitating Factors: Factors associated with the definitive onset of a disease, illness, accident, behavioral response, or course of action. Usually one factor is more important or more obviously recognizable than others, if several are involved, and one may often be regarded as "necessary". Examples include exposure to specific disease; amount or level of an infectious organism, drug, or noxious agent, etc.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Child, Gifted: A child or adolescent who, when compared to others of the same age or experience, exhibits capability of high performance in intellectual, creative, or artistic areas, possesses an unusual capacity for leadership or excels in specific academic fields. (From PL 100-297, Sec. 4103, Definitions)Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Schools: Educational institutions.Assertiveness: Strongly insistent, self-assured, and demanding behavior.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.