Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Gymnastics: Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.ConnecticutFunctional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.ArizonaOils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Track and Field: Sports performed on a track, field, or arena and including running events and other competitions, such as the pole vault, shot put, etc.Sarraceniaceae: A plant family of the order Nepenthales.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Consumer Product SafetySkiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Free Tissue Flaps: A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".