Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Luminol: 5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sulfanilamides: Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Automobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Telescopes: Instruments used to observe distant objects.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Polyacetylenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one triple bond; or an oxidized form of POLYENES. They can react with SULFUR to form THIOPHENES.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.