Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Amorphophallus: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Fish Flour: A flour made of pulverized, dried fish or fish parts.Typhaceae: A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Methoprene: Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Wheat Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to wheat that is triggered by the immune system.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.Arabia: The great peninsula of southwest Asia comprising most of the present countries of the Middle East. It has been known since the first millennium B.C. In early times it was divided into Arabia Petraea, the northwest part, the only part ever conquered, becoming a Roman province; Arabia Deserta, the northern part between Syria and Mesopotamia; and Arabia Felix, the main part of the peninsula but by some geographers restricted to modern Yemen. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p63)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Hymenolepiasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.UzbekistanThioglycosidesMicronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Guam: An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Pediococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Sapotaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Pulicaria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pulicanadienes and other cytotoxic SESQUITERPENES.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Gossypol: A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.Nepeta: A genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known for its mild calming effect and for the way cats are attracted to the aroma.Zinc Sulfate: A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Hymenolepis diminuta: A species of tapeworm (TAPEWORMS) infecting RATS and MICE but rarely causing disease in humans. Its life cycle involves RODENTS as the definitive host and BEETLES as the intermediate host.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Cannibalism: Eating other individuals of one's own species.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Bromelains: Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.GuatemalaIron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Hymenolepis: A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Pantoea: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)BelgiumMalawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.