The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
An 11-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Gamma-MSH stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis and has an regulatory role in the cardiovascular and the renal systems.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Root nodules host the Frankia (ACTINOMYCETES) nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
All organized methods of funding.
Organized groups of users of goods and services.
Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.
Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.6.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Endoscopes for examining the interior of the sigmoid colon.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
The structure at the pharyngoesophageal junction consisting chiefly of the CRICOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE. It normally occludes the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS, except during SWALLOWING.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
A group of degraded TRITERPENES which have lost ten carbons (8 from the side chain, C17, and one from C4) so have C20 skeletons which could be misinterpreted as DITERPENES. They especially occur in plants of the SIMAROUBACEAE family.
Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.
Simple amine found in the brain. It may be modulator of sympathetic functions. Its derivatives are adrenergic agonists and antagonists. It is also used in chemical industry.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.
Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.
A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.
Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.
The status of health in rural populations.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Programs in which participation is required.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.