Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Pediatric Nursing: The nursing specialty concerning care of children from birth to adolescence. It includes the clinical and psychological aspects of nursing care.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Neuroradiography: Radiography of the central nervous system.United StatesAllied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Specialties, Surgical: Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Radiology, Interventional: Subspecialty of radiology that combines organ system radiography, catheter techniques and sectional imaging.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Traumatology: The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Specialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.