Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.
A surgical specialty concerned with correcting conditions related to malposition of the jawbones and other related MAXILLOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES (e.g., CLEFT PALATE; RETROGNATHISM).
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.
Sagittal sectioning and repositioning of the ramus of the MANDIBLE to correct a mandibular retrusion, MALOCCLUSION, ANGLE CLASS III; and PROGNATHISM. The oblique sectioning line consists of multiple cuts horizontal and vertical to the mandibular ramus.
A surgical procedure done largely for cosmetic reasons to correct receding chins, chin misalignment, or chin excess.
The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with congenital eyelid dermoids.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.
The condition characterized by uneven or irregular shape of the head often in parallelogram shape with a flat spot on the back or one side of the head. It can either result from the premature CRANIAL SUTURE closure (CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS) or from external forces (NONSYNOSTOTIC PLAGIOCEPHALY).
A deformity of the SKULL that is not due to bone fusion (SYNOSTOSIS), such as craniosynostoses, and is characterized by an asymmetric skull and face. It is observed with an increased frequency in INFANTS after the adoption of supine sleeping recommendations to prevent SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME.
Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.