Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
A condition characterized by recurring episodes of fluid leaking from capillaries into extra-vascular compartments causing hematocrit to rise precipitously. If not treated, generalized vascular leak can lead to generalized EDEMA; SHOCK; cardiovascular collapse; and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
The use of HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVES, in the frequency range of 20-30 kHz, to cut through mineralized tissue.