Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Oxygenators, Membrane: Devices in which blood and oxygen are separated by a semipermeable membrane, generally of Teflon or polypropylene, across which gas exchange occurs. The membrane may be arranged as a series of parallel plates or as a number of hollow fibers; in the latter arrangement, the blood may flow inside the fibers, which are surrounded by gas, or the blood may flow outside the fibers and the gas inside the fibers. (Dorland, 28th ed)Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hernia, Diaphragmatic: Protrusion of abdominal structures into the THORAX as a result of congenital or traumatic defects in the respiratory DIAPHRAGM.Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome: A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).Organ Dysfunction Scores: Ratings that express, in numerical values, the degree of impairment or abnormality in the function of specific organs.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Artificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Capgras Syndrome: A psychotic disorder characterized by the patient's belief that acquaintances or closely related persons have been replaced by doubles or imposters.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tracheobronchomalacia: A congenital or acquired condition of underdeveloped or degeneration of CARTILAGE in the TRACHEA and the BRONCHI. This results in a floppy non-rigid airway making patency difficult to maintain.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.Air Ambulances: Fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters equipped for air transport of patients.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Primary Graft Dysfunction: A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping: Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.IllinoisBlood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.