A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A malignant tumor of the bone which always arises in the medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones. The tumor occurs usually before the age of 20, about twice as frequently in males as in females.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
A ubiquitous hnRNP protein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Translocations that result in the formation of fusion proteins containing parts of RNA-binding protein EWS may play a role in neoplastic processes such as EWING SARCOMA.
A member of the c-ets family of transcription factors that is preferentially expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages and vascular endothelial cells. It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An intracellular ribonucleolytic protein complex that participates in POSTRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING and RNA DEGRADATION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.