A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.