Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.New YorkPharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Sexual and Gender Disorders: Mental disorders related to sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders.Feminism: The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.Transvestism: Disorder characterized by recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing in a heterosexual male. The fantasies, urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other areas of functioning. (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Multiple Personality Disorder: A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)BostonTobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Licensure, Nursing: The granting of a license to practice the profession of nursing.Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.BiguanidesScotland1-Deoxynojirimycin: An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.IndolizinesHypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.