Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Enbucrilate: A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Hemostasis, Endoscopic: Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Sclerotherapy: Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Hematemesis: Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Sclerosing Solutions: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Ethiodized Oil: Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic: A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Caroli Disease: Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).