Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Dental High-Speed Equipment: Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.United StatesAthletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Consumer Product SafetyTransportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Materials Management, Hospital: The management of all procurement, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, as well as logistics management including laundry, processing of reusables, etc.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Radiation Equipment and Supplies: Instruments and apparatus for radiation applications and their components and associated expendables.Radiation ProtectionQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Animals, LaboratoryIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Respiratory Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration of diagnostic pulmonary function tests and of procedures to restore optimum pulmonary ventilation.Cooking and Eating UtensilsFiltration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Ambulances: A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)ComputersInhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Emergency Medical Technicians: Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Schools: Educational institutions.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Rescue Work: Activities devoted to freeing persons or animals from danger to life or well-being in accidents, fires, bombings, floods, earthquakes, other disasters and life-threatening conditions. While usually performed by team efforts, rescue work is not restricted to organized services.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Sphygmomanometers: Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.EnglandComputer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Earthquakes: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.Great BritainCalibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.