Episiotomy: An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.Perineum: The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Labor Stage, Second: The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Nurse Midwives: Professional nurses who have received postgraduate training in midwifery.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Hemorrhoidectomy: The surgical removal of HEMORRHOIDS.Obstetric Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the pregnant woman for conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. It does not include surgery of the newborn infant.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Polydioxanone: An absorbable suture material used also as ligating clips, as pins for internal fixation of broken bones, and as ligament reinforcement for surgically managed ligament injuries. Its promising characteristics are elasticity, complete biodegradability, and lack of side effects such as infections.Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pelvic Floor Disorders: Injury, weakening, or PROLAPSE of the pelvic muscles, surrounding connective tissues or ligaments (PELVIC FLOOR).Cryosurgery: The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.Rectovaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.