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Episiotomy: An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.Perineum: The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Labor Stage, Second: The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Nurse Midwives: Professional nurses who have received postgraduate training in midwifery.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.