Bhopal Accidental Release: 1984 accident in Bhopal, INDIA at a PESTICIDES facility, resulting when WATER entered a storage tank containing ISOCYANATES. The following accidental chemical release and uncontrolled reaction resulted in several thousand deaths.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Epidemiologic Factors: Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.Biostatistics: The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Advanced Practice Nursing: Evidence-based nursing, midwifery and healthcare grounded in research and scholarship. Practitioners include nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Child, Unwanted: The child who is not wanted by one or both parents.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.KansasTranssexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Sexual and Gender Disorders: Mental disorders related to sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.BooksWyomingCensuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Sporangia: A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.United StatesGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Communicable DiseasesCommunicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.BostonBias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Propensity Score: Conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.