Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that prevent clotting.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A heparin fraction with a mean molecular weight of 4500 daltons. It is isolated from porcine mucosal heparin and used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Bleeding within the SKULL induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the tissues of CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM; as well as into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the MENINGES.
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.
A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.
The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.
Complex pain syndrome with unknown etiology, characterized by constant or intermittent generalized vulva pain (Generalized vulvodynia) or localized burning sensations in the VESTIBULE area when pressure is applied (Vestibulodynia, or Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome). Typically, vulvar tissue with vulvodynia appears normal without infection or skin disease. Vulvodynia impacts negatively on a woman's quality of life as it interferes with sexual and daily activities.
Pathological processes of the VULVA.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Inflammation of the vulvar vestibular region at the entrance of the VAGINA, generally involving surface mucosa and submucosal vestibular glands. It is characterized by ERYTHEMA and chronic recurrent pain in this area.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.
The practice of replacing one prescribed drug with another that is expected to have the same clinical or psychological effect.
Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.