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Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Neotyphodium: The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Ergotamines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids containing the ergotaman backbone structure.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Viscaceae: The Christmas Mistletoe plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasitic primarily on coniferous trees forming a drooping evergreen bush of leathery leaves on tree branches. The berries are sticky and toxic.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Herbaspirillum: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Azoarcus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gluconacetobacter: A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bromus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM).Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Fusariosis: OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS with the soil fungus FUSARIUM. Typically the infection is limited to the nail plate (ONYCHOMYCOSIS). The infection can however become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST (e.g., NEUTROPENIA) and results in cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, fever, KERATITIS, and pulmonary infections.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.PanamaCacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Dendrobium: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.Cajanus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.ParaguayBiodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.