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Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Empyema, Subdural: An intracranial or rarely intraspinal suppurative process invading the space between the inner surface of the DURA MATER and the outer surface of the ARACHNOID.Empyema, Tuberculous: Empyema due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Pleural DiseasesDrainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Bronchial Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Thoracoplasty: Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Gastric Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.