Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome: Dwarfism occurring in association with defective development of skin, hair, and teeth, polydactyly, and defect of the cardiac septum. (Dorland, 27th ed)Labial FrenumMouth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the mouth.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Nails, Malformed: Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.Hebrides: A group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean west of Scotland, comprising the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides.Natal Teeth: Predeciduous teeth present at birth. They may be well formed and normal or may represent hornified epithelial structures without roots. They are found on the gingivae over the crest of the ridge and arise from accessory buds of the dental lamina ahead of the deciduous buds or from buds of the accessory dental lamina. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Polydactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits.Anodontia: Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Genu Valgum: An inward slant of the thigh in which the knees are close together and the ankles far apart. Genu valgum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasias (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; HURLER SYNDROME); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.GermanyHedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Hedgehogs: The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D: A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Caroli Disease: Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation: A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome: A syndrome inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and incompatible with life. The main features are narrow thorax, short ribs, scapular and pelvic dysplasia, and polydactyly.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.