Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow: Replacement of the ELBOW JOINT.Elbow Prosthesis: Replacement for an elbow joint.DislocationsRange of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Humeral FracturesUlnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes: Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Compression of the ULNAR NERVE in the cubital tunnel, which is formed by the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, humeral-ulnar aponeurosis, and medial ligaments of the elbow. This condition may follow trauma or occur in association with processes which produce nerve enlargement or narrowing of the canal. Manifestations include elbow pain and PARESTHESIA radiating distally, weakness of ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and loss of sensation over the hypothenar region, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Joint DiseasesBrachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Osteochondromatosis: A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Deceleration: A decrease in the rate of speed.