Echolalia: Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Generalization, Stimulus: The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Only Child: Child who has no siblings.Capital Punishment: The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Cooking and Eating UtensilsFeeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tics: Habitual, repeated, rapid contraction of certain muscles, resulting in stereotyped individualized actions that can be voluntarily suppressed for only brief periods. They often involve the face, vocal cords, neck, and less often the extremities. Examples include repetitive throat clearing, vocalizations, sniffing, pursing the lips, and excessive blinking. Tics tend to be aggravated by emotional stress. When frequent they may interfere with speech and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS. Conditions which feature frequent and prominent tics as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as TIC DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp109-10)Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Vena Cava Filters: Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Nails: The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Hemorrhoidectomy: The surgical removal of HEMORRHOIDS.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.