A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.
The ethical and/or legal obligation of a health provider or researcher to communicate with a former patient or research subject about advances in research relevant to a treatment or to a genetic or other diagnostic test provided earlier, or about proposed new uses of blood or tissue samples taken in the past for another purpose.
The practice of nursing by a registered or licensed nurse to care for a specific patient in a health facility or in the home.
The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.
Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.
The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Institutional night care of patients.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.
Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.
Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.
Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.
An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.
The expected function of a member of the medical profession.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.
Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
Medical care provided after the regular practice schedule of the physicians. Usually it is designed to deliver 24-hour-a-day and 365-day-a-year patient care coverage for emergencies, triage, pediatric care, or hospice care.
The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.
Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
Planning and control of time to improve efficiency and effectiveness.
Branch of psychiatry concerned with problems related to the prevention, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of mental or emotional disorders of Armed Forces personnel.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
Administration of nursing services for one or more clinical units.
Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.
The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to destroy tissue. It is sometimes used in conjunction with but is distinct from INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
The interactions between physician and patient.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government whose mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter WARFARE and to protect the security of our country.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.
Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.
A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Former members of the armed services.
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)
Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to produce local hyperthermia in certain diseased or injured parts of the body or to destroy the diseased tissue.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.
The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
The care and management of property.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Manner or style of walking.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
Professional or volunteer members of a fire department who are trained to suppress fire and respond to related emergency.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Those individuals engaged in research.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The educational process of instructing.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Productive or purposeful activities.
Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.
The act of killing oneself.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.