Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Hotlines: A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures: A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.ArchivesDrug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Oxazepam: A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.Nordazepam: An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Chlorprothixene: A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.Promazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Pharmaceutical Services, Online: Pharmacy services accessed via electronic means.Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.WashingtonIsraelNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.