Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Drainage, Postural: A rehabilitation therapy for removal of copious mucus secretion from the lung of patients with diseases such as CHRONIC BRONCHITIS; BRONCHIECTASIS; PULMONARY ABSCESS; or CYSTIC FIBROSIS. The patient's head is placed in a downward incline (so the TRACHEA is inferior to the affected area) for 15- to 20-minute sessions.Drainage, Sanitary: A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Glaucoma Drainage Implants: Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Lymphoscintigraphy: Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Abdominal Abscess: An abscess located in the abdominal cavity, i.e., the cavity between the diaphragm above and the pelvis below. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Pancreaticojejunostomy: Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pericardiocentesis: Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Lymphocele: Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Liver Abscess, Pyogenic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to bacterial infection within the hepatic parenchyma. It can be caused by a variety of BACTERIA, local or disseminated from infections elsewhere such as in APPENDICITIS; CHOLECYSTITIS; PERITONITIS; and after LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Seroma: Tumor-like sterile accumulation of serum in a tissue, organ, or cavity. It results from a tissue insult and is the product of tissue inflammation. It most commonly occurs following MASTECTOMY.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.MiningPelvic Infection: Infection involving the tissues or organs in the PELVIS.Lymphography: Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cutaneous Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.Psoas Abscess: Abscess of the PSOAS MUSCLES resulting usually from disease of the lumbar vertebrae, with the pus descending into the muscle sheath. The infection is most commonly tuberculous or staphylococcal.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Hydrothorax: A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Scleral Buckling: An operation for retinal detachment which reduces the size of the globe by indenting the sclera so that it approximates the retina.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Esophageal Perforation: An opening or hole in the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by TRAUMA, injury, or pathological process.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Retropharyngeal Abscess: An accumulation of purulent material in the space between the PHARYNX and the CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. This usually results from SUPPURATION of retropharyngeal LYMPH NODES in patients with UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS, perforation of the pharynx, or head and neck injuries.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.TokyoBrain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Dumping Syndrome: Gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from an absent or nonfunctioning pylorus.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Abdominal Cavity: The region in the abdomen extending from the thoracic DIAPHRAGM to the plane of the superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet). The abdominal cavity contains the PERITONEUM and abdominal VISCERA, as well as the extraperitoneal space which includes the RETROPERITONEAL SPACE.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Pleural DiseasesPancreatic Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Subphrenic Abscess: Accumulation of purulent EXUDATES beneath the DIAPHRAGM, also known as upper abdominal abscess. It is usually associated with PERITONITIS or postoperative infections.