Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Sterilization Reversal: Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Surgical Staplers: Fastening devices composed of steel-tantalum alloys used to close operative wounds, especially of the skin, which minimizes infection by not introducing a foreign body that would connect external and internal regions of the body. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Surgical Stapling: A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.Duodenostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.Rectal Prolapse: Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.TextilesPorosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Absorbent Pads: Pads made of various materials used for personal hygiene usually for absorbing URINE or FECES. They can be worn as underpants or pants liners by various age groups, from NEWBORNS to the ELDERLY. Absorbent pads can be made of fluff wood pulp and HYDROGEL absorbent covered with viscose rayon, polyester, polypropylene, or POLYETHYLENE coverstock.Tooth Abrasion: The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)Diapers, Adult: Absorbent pads designed to be worn as underpants or pants liners by adults.Primitive Streak: A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)DirectoryDrug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Schools: Educational institutions.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.