Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Great BritainHospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Home Care Agencies: Public or private organizations that provide, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations, home health services in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)Home Health Aides: Persons who assist ill, elderly, or disabled persons in the home, carrying out personal care and housekeeping tasks. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms. 2d ed, p202)Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Prospective Payment System: A system wherein reimbursement rates are set, for a given period of time, prior to the circumstances giving rise to actual reimbursement claims.Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)United StatesPostal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Radionuclide Generators: Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.RestaurantsPharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Transition to Adult Care: Transfer from pediatric to adult care.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins: SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.