DioxolesPolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.EthersEthyl EthersPolymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.United StatesFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.LiechtensteinDioxolanesEuropean Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)IcelandIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.EuropeConsumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Yeast, Dried: The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Anthranilate Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of N-5'-phosphoribosylanthranilic acid from anthranilate and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate, the first step in tryptophan synthesis in E. coli. It exists in a complex with ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE in bacteria. EC 2.4.2.18.Pyrimidine Phosphorylases: Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Anthranilate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices: Types of artificial pacemakers with implantable leads to be placed at multiple intracardial sites. They are used to treat various cardiac conduction disturbances which interfere with the timing of contraction of the ventricles. They may or may not include defibrillating electrodes (IMPLANTABLE DEFIBRILLATORS) as well.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.