Dihydroergotoxine: A mixture of three different hydrogenated derivatives of ERGOTAMINE: DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. Dihydroergotoxine has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent and a nootropic agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear, but it can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and a dopamine agonist. The methanesulfonate salts of this mixture of alkaloids are called ERGOLOID MESYLATES.Domperidone: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.PiperazinesMedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Patient Medication Knowledge: Patient health knowledge related to medications including what is being used and why as well as instructions and precautions.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.MarylandReceptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Ergoloid Mesylates: A mixture of the mesylates (methane sulfonates) of DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and the alpha- and beta-isomers of DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. The substance produces a generalized peripheral vasodilation and a fall in arterial pressure and has been used to treat symptoms of mild to moderate impairment of mental function in the elderly.Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Dihydroergocornine: A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE that contains isopropyl sidechains at the 2' and 5' positions of the molecule.Dihydroergocristine: A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE that contains an isopropyl sidechain at the 2' position of the molecule.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Deoxyepinephrine: Sympathomimetic, vasoconstrictor agent.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Xamoterol: A phenoxypropanolamine derivative that is a selective beta-1-adrenergic agonist.Tropicamide: One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Lipofuscin: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Meclofenoxate: An ester of DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL and para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid.Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.Deanol: An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.Midodrine: An ethanolamine derivative that is an adrenergic alpha-1 agonist. It is used as a vasoconstrictor agent in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.