An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Seven-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.